Download CMA Intermediate Syllabus June 2022 ICMAI Exams

Group and subject wise detail CMA Intermediate syllabus for preparation of June 2022 term of examinations. FAC, LNE, DTX, CA, OMSM, CMAFM, ITX and CAA.

CMA Inter Syllabus 2022: Subject wise detail of CMA Intermediate syllabus is available here for June 2022 examinations. Intermediate course syllabus 2016 is applicable for June 2022 term of examination.

The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (CMA Institute) had notified New Syllabus 2016 vide notification No. CMA (3)/2015 read with Circular No. G/128/4/2015-16 effect from 1st August 2016. Now, all students who shall take admission to CMA Intermediate Course shall pursue course under the new “Syllabus 2016”.

CMA Intermediate syllabus for June 2022 is based on International Standards set by IFAC (International Federation of Accountants) and IAESB (International Accounting Education Standards Board) and Initial Professional Development – Professional Skills (Revised) through IEG (International Educational Guidelines).

CMA Intermediate Course New Syllabus

Under the new syllabus 2016 of CMA Intermediate Level examination, each groups consisting of four papers has now been further segregated into “Module” of two papers. Accordingly, you may appear in Module/ Modules as per your choice under new syllabus.

CMA Inter Group-I Subjects

  • Paper-5: Financial Accounting (FAC)
  • Paper-6: Laws & Ethics (LNE)
  • Paper-7: Direct Taxation (DTX)
  • Paper-8: Cost Accounting (CAC)

CMA Inter Group-II Subjects

  • Paper-9: Operations Management & Strategic Management (OMSM)
  • Paper-10: Cost & Management Accounting and Financial Management (CMFM)
  • Paper-11: Indirect Taxation (ITX)
  • Paper-12: Company Accounts & Audit (CAA)

Paper-5: Financial Accounting (FAC)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
AAccounting – Basics25 Marks
BPreparation of Financial Statements40 Marks
CSelf Balancing Ledger, Royalties, Hire Purchase & Installment System, Branch & Departmental Accounts20 Marks
DAccounting in Computerised Environment and Accounting Standards15 Marks

Accounting – Basics

SECTION A: ACCOUNTING – BASICS [25 MARKS]

1. Fundamentals of Accounting

  • Accounting
  • Meaning, Scope and Significance of Accounting
  • Accounting Principles, Concepts and Conventions
  • Capital and Revenue Transactions
  • Depreciation
  • Rectification of Errors.

2. Accounting for Special Transactions

  • Bill of Exchange
  • Consignment
  • Joint Venture
  • Insurance
  • Claims (Loss of Stock and Loss of Profit).

Preparation of Financial Statements

SECTION B: PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS [40 MARKS]

3. Preparation of Final Accounts of Profit Oriented Organizations, Non-Profit Organizations and from Incomplete Records

  • Preparation of Financial Statements of Profit Oriented organizations: P&L Account, Balance Sheet.
  • Preparation of Financial Statements of Non-Profit making organizations: Preparation of Receipts & Payments Account, Income & Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet.
  • Preparation of Financial Statements from Incomplete records (Single Entry)

4. Partnership Accounts

  • Admission
  • Retirement
  • Death
  • Treatment of Joint Life Policy
  • Dissolution of partnership firms including piece meal distribution
  • Amalgamation of partnership firms
  • Conversion of partnership firm into a company; and
  • Sale of partnership firm to a company.

Self Balancing Ledger, Royalties, Hire Purchase & Installment System, Branch & Departmental Accounts

SECTION C : SELF BALANCING LEDGERS, ROYALTIES, HIRE PURCHASE & INSTALLMENT SYSTEM, BRANCH & DEPARTMENTAL ACCOUNTS [20 MARKS]

5. Self-Balancing Ledger

6. Royalty Accounts, Hire Purchase and Installment System

7. Branch and Departmental Accounts

Accounting in Computerised Environment and Accounting Standards

SECTION D: ACCOUNTING IN COMPUTERIZED ENVIRONMENT AND ACCOUNTING STANDARDS [15 MARKS]

8. Computerized Accounting System – Features, Significance, Grouping of Accounts, Ledger hierarchy, Accounting Packages and their selection criteria

9. Accounting Standards

(AS-1, AS-2, AS-7, AS-9, AS-6 and AS-10 has been replaced by revised AS – 10).

Paper-6: Laws & Ethics (LNE)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
ACommercial Laws30 Marks
BIndustrial Laws25 Marks
CCorporate Laws35 Marks
DEthics10 Marks

Commercial Laws

SECTION A: COMMERCIAL LAWS [30 MARKS]

1. Indian Contracts Act, 1872

(a) Essential elements of a contract, offer and acceptance
(b) Void and voidable agreements
(c) Consideration
(d) Legality of object
(e) E-contracts
(f) Constraints to enforce contractual obligations
(g) Quasi-contracts, contingent contracts, termination or discharge of contracts
(h) Special contracts: Indemnity and Guarantee; Bailment and Pledge; Laws of Agency

2. Sale of Goods Act, 1930

(a) Definition
(b) Transfer of ownership
(c) Conditions and Warranties
(d) Performance of the Contract of Sale
(e) Rights of Unpaid Vendor
(f) Auction Sales

3. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881

(a) Definition and features of Negotiable Instrument
(b) Crossing, Endorsement and Material Alteration
(c) Acceptance, Assignment and Negotiation
(d) Rights and Liabilities of Parties
(e) Dishonor of a Negotiable Instrument

4. Indian Partnership Act, 1932

(a) Nature of Partnership
(b) Rights and liabilities of Partners
(c) Formation, Reconstitution and Dissolution of Firms

5. Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

(a) Concept, formation, membership, functioning
(b) Dissolution

Industrial Laws

SECTION B: INDUSTRIAL LAWS: OBJECTS, SCOPE AND APPLICABILITY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTS. [25 MARKS]

6. Factories Act, 1948

7. Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

8. Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952

9. Employees State Insurance Act, 1948

10. Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

11. Minimum Wages Act, 1948

12. Payment of Wages Act, 1936

13. Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 2013

Corporate Laws

SECTION C : CORPORATE LAWS [35 MARKS]

14. Companies Act, 2013

(a) Company types, promotion, formation and related procedures i.e, Sec 1 to Sec 122 of Companies Act, 2013
(b) Director-Role, Responsibilities, Qualification, disqualification, appointment, retirement, resignation, removal, remuneration and powers, Directors Identification Number

Ethics

SECTION D : ETHICS [10 MARKS]

15. Business Ethics

(a) Ethics – meaning, importance, nature and relevance to business
(b) Values and attitudes of professional accountants
(c) Seven principles of public life-selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, openness, honesty and leadership
(d) Ethics in Business

Paper-7: Direct Taxation (DTX)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
AIncome Tax Act Basics10 Marks
BHeads of Income and Computation of Total Income and Tax Liability70 Marks
CTax Management, Administrative Procedure and ICDS20 Marks

Income Tax Act Basics

SECTION A: INCOME TAX ACT BASICS [10 MARKS]

1. Introduction to Income Tax Act, 1961

(a) Constitutional Validity
(b) Basic Concepts and definitions
(c) Capital and Revenue Receipts
(d) Basis of charge and scope of total income
(e) Residential Status and Incidence of Tax (excluding section 9A)

2. Incomes which do not form part of Total Income [Sec.10, 11 to 13A]

Heads of Income and Computation of Total Income and Tax Liability

SECTION B: HEADS OF INCOME AND COMPUTATION OF TOTAL INCOME AND TAX LIABILITY [70 MARKS]

3. Heads of Income and Computation of Total Income under various heads

(a) Salaries
(b) Income from House property
(c) Profits and gains of Business or Profession (excluding sections 42 to 44DB but including sections 43A, 43B, 43AA, 44AB, 44AD, 44ADA and 44AE)
(d) Capital Gains
(e) Income from Other Sources

4. Clubbing Provisions, Set off and Carry forward of Losses, Deductions

(a) Income of other persons included in Assessee’s Total Income
(b) Aggregation of Income and Set off and Carry Forward of Losses
(c) Deductions in computing Total Income
(d) Rebates & Reliefs
(e) Applicable Rates of Tax and Tax Liability

5. Assessment of Income and tax liability of different persons

(a) Taxation of Individual (including AMT but excluding Non-resident)
(b) Hindu Undivided Family (HUF)
(c) Firms, LLP and Association of Persons
(d) Co-operatives Societies

Tax Management, Administrative Procedure and ICDS

SECTION – C – TAX MANAGEMENT, ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE AND ICDS [20 MARKS]

6. TDS, TCS and Advance Tax

(a) Tax Deduction at Source (excluding sections relevant to non-residents)
(b) Tax Collected at Source
(c) Advance Tax

7. Administrative procedures

(a) Return & PAN
(b) Intimation
(c) Brief concepts of Assessment u/s 140A, 143 and 144

8. ICDS

(a) Basic Concepts of ICDS

Paper-8: Cost Accounting (CAC)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
AIntroduction To Cost Accounting40 Marks
BMethods of Costing30 Marks
CCost Accounting Techniques30 Marks

Introduction To Cost Accounting

INTRODUCTION TO COST ACCOUNTING [40 MARKS]

1. Introduction To Cost Accounting

(a) Definition, Scope, objectives and significance of cost accounting, its relationship with financial accounting and management accounting
(b) Cost Objects, Cost centers and Cost Units
(c) Elements of cost
(d) Classification of costs

2. Cost Ascertainment – Elements of Cost

(a) Material Costs

  • (i) Procurement of Materials
  • (ii) Inventory Management and Control
  • (iii) Inventory Accounting & Valuation
  • (iv) Physical Verification, treatment of losses
  • (v) Scrap, spoilage, defectives and wastage

(b) Employee Costs

  • (i) Time keeping, Time booking and payroll
  • (ii) Labour Turnover, Overtime and idle time
  • (iii) Principles and methods of remuneration and incentive schemes
  • (iv) Employee cost reporting and measurement of efficiency

(c) Direct Expenses

(d) Overheads

  • (i) Collection, classification and apportionment and allocation of overheads
  • (ii) Absorption and treatment of over or under absorption of overheads
  • (iii) Reporting of overhead costs

3. Cost Accounting Standards (Basic Understanding only) (CAS 1 to CAS 24)

4. Cost Book Keeping

(a) Cost Accounting Records, Ledgers and Cost Statements
(b) Items excluded from cost and normal and abnormal items/cost
(c) Integral accounts
(d) Reconciliation of cost accounting records with financial accounts
(e) Infrastructure, Educational, Healthcare and Port services

Methods of Costing

METHODS OF COSTING [30 MARKS]

5. Methods of Costing

(a) Job Costing
(b) Batch Costing
(c) Contract Costing
(d) Process Costing – Normal and abnormal losses, equivalent production, Joint and By Products
(e) Operating Costing or Service Costing – Transport, Hotel and Hospital

Cost Accounting Techniques

COST ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES [30 MARKS]

6. Cost Accounting Techniques (Basic Understanding only)

(A) Marginal Costing

(i) Meaning of Marginal Cost and Marginal Costing
(ii) Absorption Costing vs. Marginal Costing
(iii) Break-even analysis
(iv) Margin of safety
(v) Application of Marginal Costing for decision making (simple problems only)

(B) Standard Costing & Variance Analysis

(i) Concept of standard cost and standard costing
(ii) Advantages and limitations
(iii) Computation of variance relating to material and labour costs only

(C) Budget and Budgetary Control (simple problems only)

(i) Concepts, Types of Budgets
(ii) Budgetary Control vs. Standard Costing
(iii) Advantages and limitations
(iv) Preparation of Budgets (simple problems only)

Paper-9: Operations Management & Strategic Management (OMSM)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
AOperations Management [70 Marks]
1. Operations Management – Introduction
2. Operations Planning
15 Marks
3. Designing of Operational Systems and Control
4. Production Planning and Control
5. Productivity Management and quality management
35 Marks
6. Project Management
7. Economics of Maintenance and spares management
20 Marks
BStrategic Management [30 Marks]
8. Strategic Management Introduction
9. Strategic Analysis and Strategic Planning
10. Formulation and Implementation of Strategy
30 Marks

Operations Management

SECTION A: OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [70 MARKS]

1. Operations Management Introduction

Scope, characteristics of modern operations functions – recent trends in production / operations management

2. Operations Planning

Demand forecasting – capacity planning – capacity requirement planning – facility location – facility layout – Resource aggregate planning – Material requirements planning – Manufacturing resource planning – Economic Batch quantity.

3. Designing of Operational Systems and Control

Product Design, Process design – Selection – Product Life Cycle – Process Planning – Process Selection.

4. Production Planning and Control

Introduction – Control Measures – Time study, Work study, Method study, Job Evaluation, Job Allocation (Assignment Technique), Scheduling Queuing Models, Simulation and Line Balancing – Optimum Allocation of resources – Lean Operations – JIT – Transportation Model and Linear Programming Technique (Formulation of equations only).

5. Productivity Management and Quality Management

Measurement techniques of productivity index, productivity of employee, productivity of materials, productivity of management resources, productivity of other factors – productivity improving methods – TQM basic tools and certification – ISO standards basics.

6. Project Management

Project planning – project life cycle – Gantt charts, PERT and CPM.

7. Economics of Maintenance and Spares Management

Break down Maintenance – Preventive Maintenance – Routine Maintenance – Replacement of Machine – Spare Parts Management.

Strategic Management

SECTION B: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT [30 MARKS]

8. Strategic Management Introduction

Vision-Mission and objective

9. Strategic Analysis and Strategic Planning

Situational Analysis – SWOT Analysis – Portfolio Analysis – BCG Matrices – Stages in Strategic Planning – Alternatives in Strategic Planning.

10. Formulation and Implementation of Strategy

Strategy formulation function wise (Production Strategy, Marketing Strategy, Man Power Strategy) – Structuring of Organisation for Implementation of strategy – Strategic Business Unit – Business Process re-engineering.

Paper-10: Cost & Management Accounting and Financial Management (CMFM)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
ACost & Management Accounting50 Marks
BFinancial Management50 Marks

Cost & Management Accounting

SECTION A: COST & MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING (50 MARKS)

1. Cost and Management Accounting

Introduction to Management Accounting – Relationship
between Management Accounting and Cost Accounting

2. Decision-Making Tools

(a) Marginal Costing : Break Even Analysis and cost-volume-profit analysis; break-even charts and profit charts; differential cost analysis; stock valuation under marginal costing vs. absorption costing; applications of marginal costing in decision making
(b) Transfer Pricing – Determination of Inter-departmental or Inter-company Transfer Price

3. Budgeting and Budgetary Control:

(a) Budgetary Control and Preparation of Functional and Master Budgeting
(b) Fixed, Variable, Semi-Variable Budgets
(c) Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB)

4. Standard Costing & Variance Analysis:

Computation of variances for each of the elements of costs, Sales Variances, Investigation of variances – Valuation of Stock under Standard Costing – Uniform Costing and Interfirm comparison

5. Learning Curve:

Concept of Learning curve and its application

Financial Management

SECTION B: FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (50 MARKS)

6. Introduction to Financial Management:

Meaning – Objectives – Scope of Financial Management – sources of Finance – Introduction to Financial Markets

7. Tools for Financial Analysis and Planning

Financial Ratio Analysis – Fund Flow Analysis – Cash Flow Analysis

8. Working Capital Management

Working Capital Management – Financing of Working Capital

9. Cost of Capital, Capital Structure Theories, Dividend Decisions and Leverage Analysis

Meaning of Cost of Capital – Computation of Cost of Capital – Capital Structure Theories and Dividend Decisions Theories (Walters – MM – Gordon Models) – Leverage Analysis

10. Capital Budgeting – Investment Decisions:

Concept of Capital Budgeting – Non-Discounted and Discounted Cash Flow Method – Ranking of Projects

Paper-11: Indirect Taxation (ITX)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
ACanons of Taxations – Indirect Tax GST80 Marks
BCustoms Laws20 Marks

Canons of Taxations – Indirect Tax GST

SECTION – A : CANONS OF TAXATION – INDIRECT TAX GST [80 MARKS]

Goods and Services Tax Act & Rules

1. Introduction

  1. What is GST
  2. One Nation-One Tax
  3. Dual GST Model
    • Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017 (CGST)
    • State Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017 (SGST)
    • Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017 (UTGST)
    • Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017 (IGST)
  4. Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN)
    • Functions of GSTN (i.e. Role assigned to GSTN)
    • Constitution (101st Amendment) Act, 2016 GST Council
    • Guiding principle of the GST Council
    • Functions of the GST Council
  5. Definitions under CGST Laws

2. Levy and Collection of Tax

Scope of supply (Section 7 of CGST Act, 2017)

Section 7(1) (a) all forms of supply of goods or services or both such as sale, transfer, barter, exchange, licence, rental, lease or disposal made or agreed to be made for a consideration by a person in the course or furtherance of business;

Section 7(1)(b) of CGST Act, 2017, import of services for a consideration whether or not in the course or furtherance of business

Section 7(1)(c) of the CGST Act, 2017 the activities specified in Schedule I, made or agreed to be made without a consideration

  • Permanent transfer/disposal of business assets
  • Supply between related persons or distinct persons
  • Supply to agents or by agents
  • Importation of Services

Section 7(1)(d) of the CGST Act, 2017, the activities to be treated as supply of goods or supply of services as referred to in Schedule-II

  • Renting of Immovable Property
  • Information Technology software
  • Transfer of the right to use any goods for any purpose
  • Composite supply

Non-taxable Supplies under CGST Act, 2017

Section 7(2) (a) activities or transactions specified in Schedule III;

Section 7(2)(b) such activities or transactions undertaken by the Central Government, a State Government or any local authority in which they are engaged as public authorities, as may be notified by the Government on the recommendations of the Council

Section 7(3) the transactions that are to be treated as—
(a) a supply of goods and not as a supply of services; or
(b) a supply of services and not as a supply of goods. Composite and Mixed Supplies (Section 8 of CGST Act, 2017)

Meaning of Composite and Mixed Supplies, Composite Supply, Mixed supply, Levy and Collection, Composition Levy, Exemption from tax, Person liable to pay tax, Forward Charge, Reverse Charge, Person who are required to pay tax under section 9(5) of CGST (i.e. Electronic Commerce Operator) Act.

3. Time, Value and Place of Supply

  • Time of supply
  • Place of supply
  • Value of supply
  • Change in rate of tax in respect of supply of goods or services

4. Input Tax Credit

  • Eligibility for taking Input Tax Credit (ITC)
  • Blocked Credits
  • Method of Reversal of Credits
  • Input Tax Credit in respect of goods sent for Job-Work
  • Distribution of credit by Input Service Distributor (ISD)

5. Registration under GST Law

  • Persons not liable for registration
  • Compulsory registration
  • Concept of Distinct Persons under GST
  • Procedure for registration
  • Deemed registration
  • Casual taxable person
  • Non-resident taxable person
  • Cancellation vs. Revocation of registration

6. Tax Invoice, Credit and Debit Notes and other documents under GST

7. Accounts, Other Records

8. Payment of Tax

Computation of Tax liability and payment of tax, Interest on delayed payment of tax

9. TDS & TCS under GST

10. Returns

11. Matching Concept under GST

12. GST Audit by Professionals

13. E – Waybills under GST – Basics

Customs Laws

SECTION – B : CUSTOMS LAWS [20 MARKS]

1. Basic Concepts

Introduction, Definitions, Circumstances of Levy

2. Types of Duties

Introduction

Types of Duties

  • Basic customs duty
  • IGST (replacement of CVD and Spl. CVD)
  • Protective duties
  • Safeguard duty
  • Countervailing Duty on subsidized articles
  • Anti-dumping duty

3. Valuation under Customs

  • Introduction
  • Valuation of Imported Goods
  • Valuation of Export Goods

4. Import and Export Procedures

  • Introduction
  • Import Procedures (including warehousing)
  • Export Procedures
  • Deemed Exports
  • Duty drawback

5. Customs (Import of Goods at Concessional Rate of Duty) Rules, 2017

Paper-12: Company Accounts & Audit (CAA)

Syllabus Structure: The syllabus comprises the following topics and study weightage:-

SectionTopicsWeightage of Marks
AAccounts of Joint Stock Companies50 Marks
BAuditing50 Marks

Accounts of Joint Stock Companies

SECTION A: ACCOUNTS OF JOINT STOCK COMPANIES (50 MARKS)

1. Accounting of Shares and Debentures

(a) Issue of shares, rights issue, bonus issue, sweat equity shares, forfeiture of share, buy-back of shares
(b) Issue and redemption of preference shares, debentures
(c) Underwriting of shares and debentures

2. Presentation of Financial Statements (as per Schedule-III)

(a) Statement of Profit and Loss
(b) Balance Sheet

3. Cash Flow Statement (AS-3)

4. Accounts of Banking, Electricity and Insurance Companies

(a) Accounts of Banking Company
(b) Accounts of an Electricity Company
(c) Accounts of Insurance Company

5. Accounting Standards (AS-11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19)

Auditing

SECTION B: AUDITING (50 MARKS)

6. Auditing Concepts

(a) Nature, Scope and Significance of Auditing
(b) Audit Engagement, Audit Program, Audit Working Papers, Audit Note Book, Audit Evidence and Audit Report
(c) Internal Check, Internal Control, Internal Audit-Industry Specific

7. Provision relating to Audit under Companies Act

(a) Auditor’s qualifications, disqualifications, appointment, remuneration, removal, powers and duties
(b) Cost Audit, Secretarial Audit
(c) Reporting Requirements under Companies Act, Report vs. Certificate, contents of the reports and qualifications in the report.
(d) Miscellaneous Audit

  • i. Branch Audit, Joint Audit
  • ii. Audit of shares and debentures
  • iii. Audit of divisible profits and dividends
  • iv. Statutory Auditors vs. Internal Auditors
  • v. Auditing and Assurance Standards relating to audit of inventories and audit of fixed assets
  • vi. Auditing of different types of undertaking – Education, Hospital, Co-operative Societies, Banks, Trusts, Municipalities, Panchayats

Learning Objectives and understand CMA Inter Exam Questions

The following table lists the learning objectives and the verbs that appear in the syllabus learning aims and examination questions:

KNOWLEDGE

What you are expected to know

  • List: Make a list of
  • State: Express, fully or clearly, the details/facts of
  • Define: Give the exact meaning of

COMPREHENSION

What you are expected to understand

  • Describe: Communicate the key features of
  • Distinguish: Highlight the differences between
  • Explain: Make clear or intelligible/ state the meaning or purpose of
  • Identify: Recognize, establish or select after consideration
  • Illustrate: Use an example to describe or explain something

APPLICATION

How you are expected to apply your knowledge

  • Apply: Put to practical use
  • Calculate: Ascertain or reckon mathematically
  • Demonstrate: Prove with certainty or exhibit by practical means
  • Prepare: Make or get ready for use
  • Reconcile: Make or prove consistent/ compatible
  • Solve: Find an answer to
  • Tabulate: Arrange in a table

ANALYSIS

How you are expected to analyse the detail of what you have learned

  • Analyse: Examine in detail the structure of
  • Categorise: Place into a defined class or division
  • Compare and contrast: Show the similarities and/or differences between
  • Construct: Build up or compile
  • Discuss: Examine in detail by argument
  • Interpret :Translate into intelligible or familiar terms
  • Prioritise: Place in order of priority or sequence for action
  • Produce: Create or bring into existence


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