CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 for Class 10 – Download Secondary School Syllabus

Secondary Curriculum (IX-X) for Academic Year 2024-25. CBSE Syllabus for Class 10 download PDF Secondary School Syllabus of all subjects for 2024 and 2025.

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus 2024-25: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) every year provides curriculum for class IX and Class X. Download Class 10 academic content, syllabus 2024-25 for examinations with learning outcomes, pedagogical practices and assessment guidelines.

Broadly you may say that curriculum encompasses general objectives of learning, competencies to be attained, courses of study, subject-wise learning outcomes and content, pedagogical practices and assessment guidelines.

The curriculum provided by CBSE is based on National Education Policy 2020 and seeks to provide opportunities for students to achieve excellence in learning.

CBSE Board Class IX and Class X curriculum refers to the lessons and educational content of all subjects to be taught to a learner in a secondary school. Actually, curriculum is a sum total of a planned set of educational experiences provided to a learner by a school.

Subjects to be offered in Secondary School Syllabus

Class IX and X is a composite course. Students therefore should take only those subjects in class IX which they intend to continue in Class-10. In secondary school under CBSE Board following subjects can be offered:-

SubjectName of Subjects
Subject-1 (Compulsory)Group-L: Language I (Hindi -Course A or Hindi -Course B or English Language and Literature )
Subject-2 (Compulsory)Group-L: Language II (Any one from the Group of Languages (Group-L) other than the Language chosen as Subject 1)
Subject-3 (Compulsory)Group-A1: Mathematics – Basic or Mathematics Standard
Subject-4 (Compulsory)Group-A1: Science
Subject-5 (Compulsory)Group-A1: Social Science
Subject-6 (Optional)Group-S: Skill subject
Subject-7 (Optional)Group-L / Group-A2: Language III / Any subject other than opted above
Subject-8 and 9
(Subjects of Internal Assessment)

Assessment and certification at school level
Art Education

Health & Physical Education Work Experience (Work experience is subsumed in Health and Physical Education)
All Subjects of Class IX-X in CBSE Syllabus 2024-25

a) Mathematics – Basic or Mathematics Standard: The Board Examination in Mathematics is held at two levels in Class X. However, it is not be applicable to the internal assessment done in Mathematics at the school level in class X. For details please refer Circular No. Acad. 03/2019.

Please note that if you opt for Mathematics – Basic then you will have the option of taking Applied Mathematics (241) as an Elective at Class XI/ Senior Secondary though you may not be permitted to take Mathematics (041) at Sr. Secondary level. However a student who has opted Mathematics – standard can offer any one of the two available Mathematics at Sr. Secondary level.

(b) Failed in Compulsory Subjects: If a student fails in any one of the three compulsory subjects (i.e. Science, Mathematics and Social Science) and passes in the Skill subject (offered as sixth optional subject), then that subject will be replaced by the Skill subject and the result of Class 10 Board examination will be computed accordingly.

(c) Failed in Language Subjects: If a student fails in any language subject, out of first five subjects, the same will be replaced by the language taken as sixth subject (in case of no skills subjects offered) or as seventh subject (optional), provided that he or she has passed this language and after replacement either Hindi or English remains as a passed language in the first five subjects.

(d) Failed in Third Language: It is expected that all the students would have studied three languages up to class VIII. Those students who could not clear the third language in class VIII and have been promoted to class IX, shall be examined by the concerned schools at the end of Class IX in the same syllabus and textbooks as prescribed for class VIII.

Those who are still unable to clear the third language at the end of class IX may be given another opportunity in class X. No student shall be eligible to appear in the Secondary School Examination of the Board at the end of class X unless she/he has passed in the third language. However, CWSN (Children with Special Needs) are exempted from the study of third language.

(e) Hindi or English: Either Hindi or English must be one of the two languages to be studied in class IX and X. Hindi and English can also be offered simultaneously.

Hindi Language: In Hindi, two courses have been provided for class IX and X keeping in view the varying backgrounds of the students and a student may either opt for:

  • Hindi A (Code 002); or
  • Hindi B (Code 085).

English Language: Similarly English can also be offered at two levels:

  • English Language & Literature (184); and
  • Communication English (101).

(f) Students offering additional sixth skill subject may also offer an additional language III/ any subject as seventh subject.

(g) Out of the three subjects – Computer Application (Code 165), Information Technology (Code 402) and Artificial Intelligence (code 417) – only one can be offered. A combination of any of these subjects is not permitted.

(h) Exemptions/ Concessions: CBSE Board is extending several exemptions or concessions to candidates with disabilities as defined in the “THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT 2016”. Exemptions/Concessions extended to Persons with Benchmark Disabilities for Class X & XII Examinations conducted by the Board.

The Standard Operating Procedure for availing these concessions are available on:
Schools and candidates may also refer to the circulars issued by the CBSE Board from time to time on this matter.

(i) For Regional Languages, the Board prescribes the textbooks being followed in classes IX and X in the respective State Boards where the language is taught.

List of subjects offered at Secondary Level:


Subject CodeName of Language Subjects
(Theory 80 Marks + Internal 20 Marks)
(Any one)
(Any one)
(Any one)
(Any one)
(Any one)
Language Subjects CBSE Board Syllabus 2024-25


Subject CodeName of Language Subjects
(Theory 80 Marks + Internal 20 Marks)
(Any One)
Compulsory Subjects CBSE Board Syllabus 2024-25


Subject CodeName of Language Subjects

(Theory 30 Marks + Internal 20 Marks + Practical 50 Marks)

[Any One]

(Theory 30 Marks + Internal 20 Marks + Practical 50 Marks)

(Theory 30 Marks + Practical 70 Marks)

(Theory 30 Marks + Internal 30 Marks)
165(Theory 50 Marks + Practical 50 Marks)

[Out of the three subjects with codes – 165, 402 and 417 – only one subject can be offered.]
154(Theory 70 Marks + Practical 30 Marks)
254(Theory 70 Marks + Project 30 Marks)
Other Subjects CBSE Board Syllabus 2024-25


CodeNameJob Roles
(Theory 50 Marks + Practical 50 Marks)
401RetailingStore Operations Assistant
402Information TechnologyDomestic IT Executive/ Operator
[Out of the three subjects with codes – 165, 402 and 417 – only one subject can be offered.]
403SecurityUnarmed Security Guard
404AutomotiveAutomotive Service Technician
405Introduction To Financial MarketsBusiness Correspondent
406Introduction To TourismAssistant Tour Guide
407Beauty & WellnessAssistant Beauty Therapist
408AgricultureSolanaceous Crop Cultivator
409Food ProductionAssistant Chef (reg.)
410Front Office OperationsFront Office Executive
411Banking & InsuranceField Executive
412Marketing & SalesMarketing Assistant
413Health CareGeneral Duty Assistant
414ApparelHand Embroider
415Multi MediaTexture Artist
416Multi Skill Foundation CourseMulti Skill Assistant
417Artificial Intelligence[Out of the three subjects with codes – 165, 402 and 417 – only one subject can be offered]
418Physical Activity Trainer (New)
419Data Science
Skill Subjects CBSE Board Syllabus 2024-25

Grading Scale for Scholastic Areas

Marks RangeGrade for Class IX
32 and belowEssential Repeat
(School will award grades as per the above grading scale)

Salient Features of the CBSE Secondary School Curriculum

The Curriculum prescribed by CBSE strives to:

  1. provide ample scope for holistic i.e. physical, intellectual and social development of students;
  2. emphasize constructivist rather than rote learning by highlighting the importance of hands-on experience;
  3. enlist general and specific teaching and assessment objectives to make learning competency-based;
  4. encourage the application of knowledge and skills in real-life problem solving scenarios;
  5. uphold the ‘Constitutional Values’ by encouraging values-based learning activities;
  6. promote Critical and Creative Thinking aligned to the 21st Century Skills in classrooms;
  7. integrate innovations in pedagogy such as experiential learning, Sport & Art-Integrated Learning, toy-based pedagogy, storytelling, gamification etc. with technological innovations (ICT integration) to keep pace with the global trends in various disciplines; ICT full form is Information and Communications Technology.
  8. promote inclusive practices as an overriding consideration in all educational activities;
  9. enhance and support learning by different types of assessments; and
  10. integrate environmental education in various disciplines from classes I- XII.

Objectives of the Curriculum

The Curriculum aims to:

  1. achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor excellence;
  2. enhance self-awareness and explore innate potential;
  3. attain mastery over laid down competencies by following on core concepts, ideas, application and problem solving;
  4. imbibe 21st century learning, literacy and life skills;
  5. promote lifelong learning through experiential, interactive activity centered and joyful learning;
  6. inculcate values and foster cultural learning and international understanding in an interdependent society;
  7. acquire the ability to utilize technology and information for the betterment of humankind;
  8. strengthen knowledge and attitude related to livelihood skills;
  9. develop the ability to appreciate art and show case talents;
  10. Promote physical fitness, health and well-being.
  11. Promote arts integrated learning.

Curriculum Areas at Secondary Level

CBSE envisions the all-around development of students in consonance with the holistic approach to education and therefore, has done away with artificial boundary between the co-curricular domain and the curricular domain.

Secondary Curriculum provides students a broad and balanced understanding of subjects including languages, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science to enable students to communicate effectively, analyze information, make informed decisions, construct their worldview in alignment with constitutional values and move ahead in the direction of becoming productive citizens.

The recent focus of CBSE is on the development of 21st-century skills in settings where each student feels independent, safe, and comfortable with their learning. The Board hopes that schools will try to align curriculum in a way so that children feel more connected to it and employ their learning in real-life contexts. To achieve this aim, it is important that children acquire adequate knowledge and skills in other core areas like Health and Physical Education, Life Skills, Values Education, Art Education, Work Education.

In an operational sense, the secondary curriculum is learner-centered with school being a place where students would be acquiring various skills; building self-concept, sense of enterprise, aesthetic sensibilities, and sportsmanship. Therefore, for the purpose of fostering core competencies in learners, this curriculum encompasses major learning areas as under:

Subject NameType
Languages 1
Languages 2
Social Science
Elective SubjectsOptional
Health and Physical Education
Work Experience (subsumed in Health and Physical Education)
Art Education

Compulsory Subjects having only school based internal assessment

Curricular Areas

The curriculum envisages individual learning propensity and seeks to explore the potential of students in acquiring knowledge and skills. With greater orientation and research skills in core areas, students would evolve as judicious young adults with a sense of real self-estimate having true values and principles. The curricular areas are as follows:

(i) Languages include Hindi, English and 37 other languages. The curricula in languages focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and, hence, develop effective communicative proficiencies. Learners use language to comprehend, acquire and communicate ideas in an effective manner.

(ii) Social Science (Geography, History, Economics and Political Science) intends to make learners understand their cultural, geographical and historical milieus and gain in-depth knowledge, attitude, skills and values necessary to bring about transformation for a better world. Social Science includes the learning of history and culture, geographical environment, global institutions, constitutional values and norms, politics, economy, interpersonal and societal interactions, civic responsibilities and the incorporation of the above-mentioned learning. Learners appreciate and value everyone’s right to feel respected and safe, and, also understand their Fundamental Rights and Duties and behave responsibly in the society.

(iii) Science: (Biology, Chemistry and Physics) includes gaining knowledge about Food, Materials, The World of the Living, How things work, Moving things, People and Ideas, Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. The Focus is on knowledge and skills to develop a scientific attitude and to use and apply such knowledge for improving the quality of life. The Curriculum promotes the ability to engage with sciencerelated issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen by being able to explain phenomena scientifically, evaluate and design scientific enquiry, and interpret data and evidence scientifically. Students understand the importance of to apply scientific knowledge in the context of real-life situations and gain competencies that enable them to participate effectively and productively in life.

(iv) Mathematics includes acquiring the concepts related to number sense, operation sense, computation, measurement, geometry, probability and statistics, the skill to calculate and organize, the ability to apply this Knowledge and acquired skills in their daily life and the skills to think mathematically. It also includes understanding of the principles of reasoning and problem solving. Children learn to rationalize and reason about pre-defined arrangements, norms and relationships in order to comprehend, decode, validate and develop relevant patterns. Mathmatics is offereed at two different levels i.e. Mathematics (Basic) & Mathematics Standard to suit needs of different learners.

(v) Skills Electives– A well-skilled workforce is one of the key requirements for the prosperity and growth for any country. Some skills come from general education, but specific occupational skills are also important. Typically initial vocational education and training systems have a big part to play in supplying these skills. To develop skills and talents as a form of free expression, Board offers variety of competency based subjects under NSQF like Retail, Information Technology, Marketing & Sales, Banking, Finance, AI etc. Choosing any one Skill subject at
secondary level can helps the child to pursue what truly interests or pleases him or her. This liberty promotes a sense of self-esteem in accepting one’s own talents and strengths.

The curriculum and the study material for the Skill Electives is available on the CBSE academic website under the tab ‘Skill Education’ and can be accessed through the link:

(vi) Art Education entails instruction in various art forms (visual as well as performing) with an aim to help children develop an interest for arts and encourage them to enthusiastically participate in related activities, thus, promoting abilities such as imagination, creativity, valuing arts and cultural heritage. In addition, Arts should be integrated with other subjects to promote creative thinking and expression.

(vii) Health and Physical Education focuses on holistic development, both mental and physical, understanding the importance of physical fitness, health, wellbeing and the factors that contribute to them. Focus of this area is on helping children develop a positive attitude and commitment to lifelong, healthy active living and the capacity to live satisfying, productive lives with the help of health management, indigenous sports, Yoga, NCC, self-defense, fitness and life style choices.

(viii) Work Experience: The Work Experience has been subsumed in the Health and Physical Education, however, it is an integral part of the curriculum and is given as much as focus as Health and Physical Education.

Integrating all areas of learning:

All these eight areas are to be integrated with each other in terms of knowledge, skills (life and livelihood), comprehension, values and attitudes. Children should get opportunities to think laterally, critically, identify opportunities, challenge their potential and be open to new ideas.

Children should be engaged in practices that promote physical, cognitive, emotional and social development and wellbeing, connect different areas of knowledge, application and values with their own lives and the world around them.

The holistic nature of human learning and knowledge should be brought forth while transacting the curriculum to make them good citizens who can contribute in making the world a happy place.

Competency based Learning:

To face the challenges of 21st Century, education should be competency based and Principals as Pedagogical Leaders must create conducive environment for the development of competencies among the students.

Competency based Learning focuses on the student’s demonstration of desired learning outcomes as central to the learning process. Learning outcomes are statements of expected outcomes that the student will be able to do to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of a process of learning as a result of learning the activity.

Therefore, the focus is on measuring learning through attainment of prescribed learning outcomes. Experiential and active learning are the preferred pedagogies for Competency Based Learning as they promote critical thinking, creativity and effective study skills among students.

Learning Outcomes approach developed by NCERT for classes I-X that is enclosed with each subject should be adopted by all the schools and teaching-learning process may be changed in the light of these outcomes. The schools are expected to have well-defined Learning objectives for every grade that are observable and measurable, and empower learners to focus on mastery of valuable skills and knowledge.

It is expected that teachers will provide meaningful and joyful learning experiences to the students by adopting variety of innovative pedagogies or instructional activities and go beyond textbooks. Schools are expected to track the attainment of Learning Outcomes by each learner and ensure that no child is left behind. CBSE has also come out with suggestive mapping of learning outcomes with NCERT curriculum which can be adopted/ adapted by schools.

CBSE has also mapped each learning outcome with assessment to enable tracking of learning progress and these resources are available at the website of CBSE in the form of Teachers Energized Resource Material. Schools should also attempt this on their own.

The Board has developed Learning standard frameworks for all major subjects i.e. Hindi, English, Science, Social Science and Mathematics. The learning standard framework (LSF) offers a structured conceptual map for integrating the discrete elemens such as learning outcomes, content, pedagogies and assessments, into a coherent continum. Its goal is to demystify the ‘evidence of learning’ and engender a common understanding of it in teachers and examiners by cataloguing competencies in clear, measurable, and contextualized achievement standards.

Combining theory and practice, different LSFs detail how the learning and assessment need to be conducted in classrooms, These frameworks contain detailed guidelines for preparing reliable and valid items along with sample questions and marking scheme for assessment. Model question paper designs have also been laid out our helping teachers prepare the question paper.

Lesson/ Unit Plan

Specific Lesson Plans for the topics are to be prepared by the teachers. These plan may have the following parts:

  • Specific Learning Outcomes;
  • Pedagogical Strategies;
  • Group activities/ experiments/ hands-on-learning;
  • Interdisciplinary Linkages and infusion of Life-skills, Values, Gender sensitivity etc.;
  • Resources (including ICT);
  • Assessment items for measuring the attainment of the Learning Outcome
  • Feedback and Remedial Teaching Plan.
  • Inclusive Practices

For more detail please visit official website of the Central Board of Secondary Education.

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