Section 48 Variation of shareholders’ rights – Companies Act 2013

Amended and updated notes on section 48 of Companies Act 2013. Detail discussion on provisions and rules related to variation of shareholders’ rights.

Amended and updated notes on section 48 of Companies Act 2013. Detail discussion on provisions and rules related to variation of shareholders’ rights.

Chapter IV (Sections 4372) of the Companies Act, 2013 (CA 2013) deals with the provisions related to share capital and debentures. Section 48 of CA 2013 provides for variation of shareholders’ rights.

Recently, we have discussed in detail section 47 (Voting rights) of CA 2013. Today, we learn the provisions of section 48 of Companies Act 2013 read with the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014.

Section 48 of the Companies Act, 2013 has been notified by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) vide Notification No. S.O. 3677(E) issued dated 07.12.2016. This notification was come into force from 15th December, 2016 i.e. the commencement date of section 48 is 15-12-2016.

Name of ActThe Companies Act 2013
Enacted byParliament of India
Administered byMinistry of Corporate Affairs (MCA)
Number of Chapters29
Number of Sections484 (470-43+57)
Number of Schedules7
You are reading:
Chapter No.IV
Chapter NameShare Capital and Debentures
Section No.48
Section NameVariation of shareholders’ rights
Monthly Updated EditionCompany Law PDF

Section 48 of Companies Act 2013: Variation of shareholders’ rights

Section 48 shall come into force on 15th December, 2016 vide Notification No. S.O. 3677(E) dated 07.12.2016.

(1) Where a share capital of the company is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attached to the shares of any class may be varied with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than three-fourths of the issued shares of that class or by means of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of the issued shares of that class, —

  • (a) if provision with respect to such variation is contained in the memorandum or articles of the company; or
  • (b) in the absence of any such provision in the memorandum or articles, if such variation is not prohibited by the terms of issue of the shares of that class:

Provided that if variation by one class of shareholders affects the rights of any other class of shareholders, the consent of three-fourths of such other class of shareholders shall also be obtained and the provisions of this section shall apply to such variation.

(2) Where the holders of not less than ten per cent of the issued shares of a class did not consent to such variation or vote in favour of the special resolution for the variation, they may apply to the Tribunal to have the variation cancelled, and where any such application is made, the variation shall not have effect unless and until it is confirmed by the Tribunal:

Provided that an application under this section shall be made within twenty-one days after the date on which the consent was given or the resolution was passed, as the case may be, and may be made on behalf of the shareholders entitled to make the application by such one or more of their number as they may appoint in writing for the purpose.

(3) The decision of the Tribunal on any application under sub-section (2) shall be binding on the shareholders.

(4) The company shall, within thirty days of the date of the order of the Tribunal, file a copy thereof with the Registrar.

(5) Where any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.


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